Irrigation technology is that transport water from source of water to the area where plant grow by something in order to provide the necessary water for plant growing.All irrigation technology is created and improved from agriculture irrigation technology.From 1930s,the first sprinkler head is invented in USA,And in 1960s, scientist invent drip irrigation in Israel,irrigation technology is improved everyday.Unit now,the irrigation technology have categories as flood irrigation,spray irrigation,Micro irrigation,hosepipe irrigation,drip irrigation, seeping irrigation, precise irrigation and more.
Flood Irrigation.It is the traditional irrigation method.Guide the water from source to the field plant grow,flood the area where people want to irrigate,then the water will go into the soil because of gravity and canaliculus in the ground.this method is easy to operate,and used from our ancestor.But the weakness is big waste of water,the low utilization rate,damage the tapsoil serious,and damage the soil structure.This kind of irrigation method have been banned in many country.
Spray Irrigation.Water Nozzle and Irrigation sprinkler spray water to the arear where plant grow because of high water pressure,then the water drip to soil as water-drop.This irrigation method need our "garden water hose nozzle"and "garden water lawn sprinkler" to spray,and transport water with water hose.The irrigation method is easy for people,people only take the necessary connector,then joint to the hose and outdoor water tap.It can work at once.Another people can spray water to where he want and can control the water flux..So it is the best irrigation method.If use sprinkler,the water can spray a long distance as 7M,it is good to irrigate big area farm,lawn or golf field.
Micro Irrigation.It is similar as spray irrigation.But Micro sprinkler only use sprinkler,and the sprinkler spray range is 4M below.Micro irrigation have the advantage of a short range,low flow,irrigate uniformity.Drawback is complexity of the installation.Sprinkler and water hosepipe are generally exposed on the ground,not pretty,not easy to manager and maintain,easy be damaged by the ultraviolet from the sun.Another the water spray area is hard to control if sprinkler,easy to spray water into the roads and fences,and other plance can not spray as wall.So it can work in the park or community gardens when child play.
Hosepipe irrigation.People install hosepipe from the source of water to the field where people want to irrigate,hose will flow from the cource of water to the field along the hosepipe.It is similar as flood irrigtation.The method of irrigation need large of labour,and need experience worker to do it,the irrigation effect is depend on the experience of the workers.Easy to spray not uniformity,waste water,pound the tapsoil to damage the soil structure.In the past,there has been no professional garden irrigation quipment,and traditional garden irrigation is simple and rough,can not reach the request.So that this irrigation method is still in some area.
Drip Irrigation.Drip irrigation is new technology invented by Israel,so this method is ideal to irrigate plant in dry area.Drip irrigation is that water spray as water-drop into soil drop by drop because of water pressure through hosepipe.this irrigation have a advantages is that save water,save labor,fertilizer,irrigation uniformity,help maintain soil aggregate structure and plant uptake.Drawback is that installation is more complex,easy to plug to sprinnkler's nozzle and different to maintain.
Seeping irrigation..First people cover the soaker hosepipe in the soil,then the water will seep slowly from the small hole on the soaker hosepipe to irrigate crop root directly.seeping irrigation underground have many advantages,but this method have a special request,example how to prevent from twining of roots and blockage of mud is difficult to solve until now,another have high request about permeation tubes with high water permeability and also have anti-clogging,high demand of irrigation water too.Also it is difficult to install the structure.So this method is still in the experimental stage.
Precise irrigation is that simulation of artificial irrigation method to spray water to target region or point for irrigation.This method have advantage as irrigation accurate,high level of automation,good reliability.this method of irrigation is developed with electronic automation technology as a new irrigation method,this method forget the terrain and environmental requirements of the traditional irrigation method,achieve arbitrary irrigation..In the future,this method will become the best the the popularest irrigation method.